A mixed-method review of cash transfers and intimate partner violence in low and middle-income countries

Ana Maria Buller; Amber Peterman; Meghna Ranganathan; Alexandra Bleile; Melissa Hidrobo; Lori Heise Innocenti Working Papers, UNICEF Office of Research, 2018; Read the full working paper online

There is increasing evidence that cash transfer (CT) programs decrease intimate partner violence (IPV); however, little is known about how CTs achieve this impact.

Drawing on a mixed method review of studies in low- and middle-income countries, as well as related bodies of evidence, the authors developed a program theory proposing three pathways through which CT could impact IPV:

  1. Economic security and emotional wellbeing
  2. Intra-household conflict
  3. Women’s empowerment

The economic security and wellbeing pathway hypothesizes decreases in IPV, while the other two pathways have ambiguous effects depending on program design features and behavioural responses to program components.

Future studies should improve IPV measurement, empirical analysis of program mechanisms, and fill regional gaps. Program framing and complementary activities, including those with the ability to shift intra-household power relations are likely to be important design features for understanding how to maximize and leverage the impact of CTs for reducing IPV, and mitigating potential adverse impacts.

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