Consensus statement on women and PrEP

Young women’s perceptions of transactional sex and sexual agency: a qualitative study in the context of rural South Africa

, ; Young women’s perceptions of transactional sex and sexual agency: a qualitative study in the context of rural South Africa

Evidence shows that HIV prevalence among young women in sub-Saharan Africa increases almost five-fold between ages 15 and 24, with almost a quarter of young women infected by their early-to mid-20s. Transactional sex or material exchange for sex is a relationship dynamic that has been shown to have an association with HIV infection.

STRIVE measurement briefs

STRIVE have produced five technical briefs to ensure that researchers use standardised approaches to measuring and analysing key structural barriers to HIV prevention and treatment.

Follow the links below to access the full briefs.

Measuring intimate partner violence

Impact case study: Alcohol Policy in Tanzania

Harmful alcohol use is associated with a number of HIV risk factors. A national alcohol policy – informed by public health evidence – will regulate alcohol availability and marketing in Tanzania. This in turn will reduce health and social harms, including HIV risk, especially among young people.

Impact case study: HIV stigma reduction in India

Stigma remains a major barrier to HIV prevention and treatment. The Asia Regional Office of the International Center for Research on Women (ICRW-ARO) adapted a global framework for understanding and addressing stigma in five different population settings in India and evaluated its impact.

Impact case study: Stigma framework and measurement

Tackling HIV-related stigma and discrimination is critical if we are to reduce and even end the AIDS epidemic. Effective stigma reduction requires an accurate understanding of the different ways in which it operates and standardised measures to identify it and design and monitor efforts to address it.

Technical brief: Measuring HIV stigma and discrimination

HIV-related stigma and discrimination continue to be experienced across the globe, impeding access to and scale-up of HIV prevention, treatment, care and support programmes. In 1987, HIV stigma was described as the ‘third epidemic’, coming after those of HIV and AIDS and no less crucial. While many individuals, organisations and governments have worked diligently to reduce HIV-related stigma and discrimination, such efforts are not implemented at a scale necessary to have a significant impact on HIV outcomes, thus stigma continues to fuel HIV transmission. 

Measurement brief: Measuring transactional sex and HIV risk

In sub-Saharan Africa, adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) face a disproportionate burden of HIV risk. Globally, 2.1 million young women are living with HIV. Four-fifths live in sub-Saharan Africa and over 25% of all new HIV infections occur in young women aged 15-24.

Measurement brief: Measuring social norms

Social norms are unspoken behavioural rules shared by people in a given society or group; they define what is considered ‘normal’ and appropriate behaviour for that group. There is substantial evidence that social norms can influence a variety of health-related behaviours, including those related to HIV. Research on HIV and social norms has mostly focussed on four aspects of the norms/HIV nexus. These are (from the most to the least studied):

Measurement brief: Measuring intimate partner violence

Gender-based violence – including physical, sexual, emotional and economic violence and abuse – is widespread globally. The most pervasive form of gender-based violence is intimate partner violence (IPV), also known as domestic violence or partner/spouse abuse. On average, 30% of women worldwide will experience at least one episode of sexual and/or physical IPV within her lifetime; the incidence and prevalence of violence in relationships, however, varies greatly both between countries and regions, and between neighbourhoods and villages.