“Eat and you will be eaten”: a qualitative study exploring costs and benefits of age-disparate sexual relationships in Tanzania and Uganda: implications for girls’ sexual and reproductive health interventions

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Age-disparate sex is heterosexual intercourse with a non-marital partner ten plus years older. In sub-Saharan Africa, these relationships are characterised by romantic/sexual involvement between adolescent girls and younger women (AGYW) and older men and may involve transactional sex. These relationships have been found to increase AGYW’s risk of HIV and other sexual and reproductive health (SRH) problems.

This study sought the views of both groups on the motivations and perceived benefits of engaging in such relationships and on the social and SRH consequences.

The EMPOWER study: An evaluation of a combination HIV prevention intervention including oral PrEP for adolescent girls and young women in South Africa and Tanzania

This evidence brief provides a summary and presents the key findings from the EMPOWER Study, conducted in Johannesburg, South Africa, and Mwanza, Tanzania. The study asked: 

Is it feasible, acceptable and safe to integrate responses to gender-based violence and harmful norms into an HIV prevention programme offering pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) aged 16-24 years? 

Prevalence and correlates of psychological distress among 13–14 year old adolescent girls in North Karnataka, South India: a cross-sectional study

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Mental health disorders among adolescents have emerged as a major public health issue in many low and middle-income countries, including India. There is a paucity of research on the determinants of psychological distress, particularly among the poorest girls in the poorest communities. 

This paper, from the Samata intervention, assesses the prevalence and correlates of different indicators of psychological distress among 13–14 year old low caste girls in rural, south India. 

Changing the norms that drive intimate partner violence: findings from a cluster randomised trial on what predisposes bystanders to take action in Kampala, Uganda

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Despite widespread calls to end violence against women, there remains limited evidence on how to prevent it. Community-level programmes seek to engage all levels of the community in changing norms that drive intimate partner violence (IPV). However, little is known about what predisposes ordinary people to become active in violence prevention.

Monitoring Research Uptake and Policy Influence

How can research programmes accurately account for the uptake and impact they achieve? To unravel this knotty question, a group of 26 funders, researchers and uptake practitioners met for a roundtable discussion in London on 12 November 2018, hosted by the Wellcome Trust and ODI. 

Eight common pitfalls of social norms interventions: theory in assistance of better practice - Ben Cislaghi

Despite the fascination with social norms theory to improve health outcomes, the ability to use social norm theory to inform health interventions varies widely. In this Learning Lab Ben Cislaghi presents eight pitfalls that practitioners must avoid as they plan to integrate a social norms perspective in their interventions, as well as eight learnings. These learnings are:

Epidemiology of alcohol use and alcohol use disorders among young people in Northern Tanzania

This poster was presented by Joel Francis at the Mwanza Intervention Trials Unit – 10th Anniversary International Symposium, 27-29 November 2018.

Infographic: Violence against women

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Violence against women is a human rights violation and global pandemic. This new infographic―developed with support from the United States Agency for International Development by the Interagency Gender Working Group’s Gender-Based Violence Task Force―illustrates the multiple ways in which violence against women harms individuals, communities, countries, and the world, and outlines actions that governments, the private sector, and funders can take to prevent and respond to violence against women.

Associations between sex work laws and sex workers’ health: A systematic review and meta-analysis of quantitative and qualitative studies

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Sex workers are at disproportionate risk of violence and sexual and emotional ill health, harms that have been linked to the criminalisation of sex work. This paper synthesised evidence on the extent to which sex work laws and policing practices affect sex workers' safety, health and access to services, and the pathways through which these effects occur.

The authors searched bibliographic databases between 1 January 1990 and 9 May 2018 for qualitative and quantitative research involving sex workers of all genders and terms relating to legislation, police, and health. 

Samvedana Plus: Reducing Violence and Increasing Condom Use in the Intimate Partnerships of Female Sex Workers in Bagalkote District, North Karnataka, South India

Previous interventions in India successfully reduced violence against female sex workers (FSWs) by 'non-intimate' partners such as clients and police, but addressing violence by their non-paying intimate partners (husband, boyfriend) has been challenging.